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Thorhaug, Anitra [1], Gallagher, John [2].

Cultivation of Rhodophycaean Marine Macrophytes vs. Constraints of Natural and Human Disasters.

Seaweed farming practices from Doty's efforts onward is successful throughout the Indo-Pacific tropics/subtropics.   Western Pacific temperate species cultivation started in Qingdao, China developing mass seaweed farming alleviating famine. Asians eat hundreds of pounds/person/yr of seaweed. Studies concentrated on growth conditions for productivity, disease control, and pressed changes effects of pollutants' uptake (heavy metals, organics, plastics). However, teaching seaweed farmers how to manage stochastic natural and anthropogenic events is given no attention: effects of oil, industrial-chemical, and sewage spills, plus typhoons, tsunamis, etc.. Oil and chemical spill events show both immediate plus long-term impacts. Consequently, new anticipatory teaching and action plans are needed. For robust actions plan, reviews of major oil spills effects on tropical to temperate seaweed farming from direct immediate and long-term observations and inferences consistent between laboratory studies of physiological responses are required. We have examined a series of oil spills findings where the lethal oil effects caused the mortality of seaweed crops within tens of km of each spill, which continued to impact crop productivity over many years. Kappaphycus cottonii and K. striatus mari-culture grounds were lethally exposed and damaged to 500,000 liters oil from sinking ship Solaris 18 km SW of Guimaras, Philippines in Ilioilio Straights. In Southwestern South Korea, the Hebei vessel released 10,500 tons of crude oil killing Pyropia sp. crops. In Colon, Panama, an onshore holding facilities released 50,000 barrels of crude oil into the estuary on naturally-occurring Rhodophyceae, which was decimated. In the Gulf War I, Saddam Hussein's troops released 1,500,000 barrels of oil into the Arabian Gulf, which traveled throughout the entire sea (Thorhaug and Oerke, 1992) decimating naturally-occurring red algae and seagrass in five nations. As another example of lethality to benthic macrophytes is the seagrass in Chandeleurs Islands, Louisiana directly loosing 42.18 ha reportedly due to the oil in 2010 after receiving oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill from a total extent 10,000 ha.  Subsequent gain of 92.27 ha of seagrass occurred across the shelf during 2010-11. Tropical Rhodophyceae macroalgae were more susceptible to the oil coating, relative to temperate Phycophyceae macroalgae due to concross-linked structure, limited lubrious secretions, and shallow natural habitats. Lethality occurs in oil from ambient light, gas and nutrient exchange diminution, and abrasion and frond breakage. The oil-sensitive phycoerythrin can also create photosynthesis disruption. With remobilization of oil from nearby sediments and soils after the initial clean-up, Rhodophyceae recovery occurred over a number of years.

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1 - Greater Caribbean Energy and ENvironment Foundation, 1359 Southwest 22nd Terrace, 1, FL, 33145, usa
2 - University Of Tasmania, Institute Of Marine And Antarctic Studies, 20 Castray Esplanade, Battery Point, Hobart, TAS, 7004, Australia

Red Seaweed Farming constraints
Red seaweed disruptions from oil spills
Red seaweed farming review of petroleum effects
Rhodophyceae cultivation pollutant responses.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: PHYS, Physiology
Location: /
Date: Wednesday, July 21st, 2021
Time: 10:00 AM(EDT)
Number: PHYS001
Abstract ID:97
Candidate for Awards:None

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