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Srivastav, Mansa [1], Clement, Wendy [2], Landrein, Sven [3], Zhang, Jingbo [4], Howarth, Dianella G. [5], Donoghue, Michael [6].

A RAD-seq phylogeny of Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae) and its implications for character evolution and biogeography.

Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae) is a horticulturally important lineage of ~ 140 species distributed widely around the Northern Hemisphere. In the only global taxonomic treatment of Lonicera, Rehder (1904) recognized two subgenera (Chamaecerasus, with four sections, and Periclymenum) based on differences in leaf fusion and the number of flowers per inflorescence. Prior phylogenetic studies based on five chloroplast and two nuclear regions found Lonicera and its two subgenera to be monophyletic. However, many relationships remain poorly resolved and support for the monophyly of the sections and subsections within Chamaecerasus has varied. We have inferred the first Lonicera tree based on maximum likelihood analyses of restriction-site associated DNA sequences (RAD-seq), sampling 82 species and ~ 11,200 loci. We found high support for most relationships, including the two subgenera and two of the four sections (Nintooa and Isoxylosteum). A key topological difference with previous studies concerns the position of Nintooa, the only section within Chamaecerasus that has vines, including L. japonica. In our analyses Nintooa is monophyletic and is sister to the remaining Chamaecerasus species. Lonicera species exhibit fusion of bracteoles, ovaries, leaves, and even entire flowers. Bracteoles subtending the same flower, or adjacent flowers, can fuse to one another during development. In some cases all four bracteoles fuse to form a ‘cupule’ of varying dimensions. In the extreme, the cupule completely surrounds and tightly encloses the developing ovaries of two adjacent flowers. In some species fruits mature completely within the cupule, whereas in others they emerge from the cupule. Our results imply that complete cupules evolved at least three times independently, but within clades characterized by some degree of bracteole fusion. We also infer that completely fused ovaries have evolved at least four times independently, but never in those lineages where bracteole fusion occurs. Most Lonicera species have red fruits, but black, blue, and white fruits have also evolved multiple times. Lonicera species generally have bilaterally symmetrical flowers with four dorsal petals pointing upward and one ventral petal pointing downwards (4:1). From this ancestral condition, flowers have evolved with two dorsal, two lateral, and one ventral petal (2:2:1), and one Himalayan-Tibetan clade (Isoxylosteum) evolved flowers that are completely radially symmetrical. Most Lonicera species are native to Asia, but we infer multiple entries into Europe and North America. The Periclymenum clade contains a small radiation within North America, but none of the several entries into North America within Chamaecerasus has led to diversification.

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1 - Yale University, Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 420 Temple Street, Helen Hadley Hall, Environmental Science Center, Room Number 356, New Haven, CT, 06511, United States
2 - The College Of New Jersery, Dept. Of Biology, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ, 08628, United States
3 - Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, LaoBanGongLou, Menglun, 666303, China
4 - St John's University, Biological Sciences, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY, 11439, USA
5 - St. John's University, Department Of Biological Sciences, St. Albert Hall Rm 257, 8000 Utopia Pkwy, Jamiaca, NY, 11439, United States
6 - Yale University, Department Of Ecology And Evolutionary Biology, 21 Sachem St., New Haven, CT, 06511, United States

morphological evolution
organ fusion

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: SYSTI, Systematics I: Euasterids II
Location: Virtual/Virtual
Date: Tuesday, July 20th, 2021
Time: 11:15 AM(EDT)
Number: SYSTI006
Abstract ID:885
Candidate for Awards:None

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