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Kriebel, Ricardo [1], Drew, Bryan [2], González-Gallegos, Jesús [3], Celep, Ferhat [4], Antar, Guilherme [5], Pastore, José Floriano Barêa [6], Uría, Rolando [7], Sytsma, Kenneth [8].

Stigma shape shifting in sages (Salvia: Lamiaceae) – hummingbirds guided the evolution of New World floral features.

How one clade of organisms influences morphological evolution in other clades is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Styles and their corresponding stigmas tend to be conserved across angiosperms, and are generally an inconspicuous floral character, but are essential for sexual reproduction. We test the hypothesis that hummingbird pollination drove the evolution of two unique stigma traits and in correlation with other floral traits in New World Salvia (Lamiaceae). We examined morphometric shapes of stigma lobing across 400 species of Salvia, scored presence and absence of a stigma brush across the genus, conducted a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods to detect shape regime shifts, correlation of trait shifts with BayesTraits and PGLS, and influence of scored pollinators on trait evolution using OUwie. We found that a major New World clade within Salvia evolved a correlated set of stigma features with a longer upper stigma lobe and stigmatic brush following an early shift to hummingbird pollination. Evolutionary constraint is evident as subsequent shifts to bee pollination largely retained these two features. Our results support the hypothesis that hummingbirds guided the correlative shifts in corolla, anther connective, style, and stigma shape in New World Salvia, despite repeated shifts back to bee pollination.

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1 - University of Wisconsin, Madison, Botany, Madison, WI, 53706, USA
2 - Univ. Of NE-Kearney, Biology, 2401 11th Ave, Bhs 312, Kearney, NE, 68849, United States
3 - Cátedras CONACYT, Durango, Durango, 34234, Mexico
4 - Bagdat Cad. 269. Sok. , Urankent Prestij Konutlar? C16 No:53, Ankara, 06200, Turkey
5 - Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Botânica, São Paulo, Brazil
6 - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil
7 - None, Mar del Plata, Argentina
8 - University Of Wisconsin, Department Of Botany, Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, United States

evolutionary constraint
evolutionary shift
secondary pollen presentation

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: MACROIII, Macroevolution III
Location: Virtual/Virtual
Date: Friday, July 23rd, 2021
Time: 10:15 AM(EDT)
Number: MACROIII002
Abstract ID:776
Candidate for Awards:None

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