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Spalink, Daniel [1], Sanbonmatsu, Katie [2], Villaverde, Tamara [3], Márquez-Corro, José Ignacio [4], Martín-Bravo, Santiago [5], Escudero Lirio, Antonio Marcial [6], Sytsma, Kenneth [7], Roalson, Eric [8], Hipp, Andrew [9], Jimenez-Mejíias, Pedro [3].

Global drivers of diversification and assembly are spatially structured.

Diversification and assembly are dynamic process that are inextricably linked. Drivers of diversification are varied and many, and lulls or bursts in speciation and extinction occur at different times and in different places. Similarly, the capacity of Earth to support biodiversity - by means of providing context-specific conditions where this diversification is promoted, suitable and accessible habitat for species that originated elsewhere, or maintaining ecological stability - changes from place to place and time to time. Causal explanations for speciation should therefore consider the spatial context of diversification, just as spatial analyses of assembly require some knowledge of the evolutionary history of the composite lineages. Here, we argue that explicitly spatial, integrated analyses of diversification drivers and patterns of assembly provide meaningful advances to our understanding of the origin of species and biogeographic regions beyond what can be accomplished through segregated analyses. To demonstrate this framework, we analyze spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity and endemism as they relate to hypothesized drivers of diversification in the second largest temperate vascular plant genus,  Carex  (Cyperaceae). We incorporate traits associated with hypothesized drivers of  Carex  diversification (chromosome number and variation, fine-scale niche partitioning, divergence of functional traits, spatial turnover) with ecological, geographical, and evolutionary traits associated with assembly (spatial variability and stability of niche space, latitude, total co-occuring vascular plant diversity, mean ages of co-occurring families, assemblage specific diversification rates and estimates of the proportion of  Carex  species with in-situ vs. ex-situ origin). We use structural equation models to test the hypothesis that drivers of diversification and assembly are spatially varied, such that observed patterns of  Carex  phylogenetic diversity and endemism are associated with context-specific traits associate with individual lineages and geographic areas. Our findings support this hypothesis, indicating that all hypothesized drivers of diversification in the genus are associated with elevated speciation rates, but in different combinations in different parts of the world. These drivers of diversification are directly linked to observed patters of phylogenetic diversity and endemism.

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1 - Texas A&M University, Ecosystem Science And Management, 2138 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77802, United States
2 - TAMU, Dept. Of Ecology And Conservation Biology, S.M. Tracy Herbarium 2138 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843, United States
3 - Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, 28040, Spain
4 - Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering, Carretera de Utrera km 1, Seville, 41013, Spain
5 - Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km 1, Seville, 41013, Spain
6 - UNIVERSITY OF SEVILLE, PLANT BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, Almaden De La Plata 12 3izq, Nº Q-4118001-I, Sevilla, SE, 41008, Spain
7 - University Of Wisconsin, Department Of Botany, Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, United States
8 - Washington State University, School of Biological Sciences, Abelson Hall 339, Pullman, WA, 99163, United States
9 - The Morton Arboretum, Herbarium, 4100 Illinois Route 53, Lisle, IL, 605320-1293, United States

Spatial Phylogenetics
evolutionary ecology
phylogenetic diversity
functional traits.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Location: Virtual/Virtual
Date: Tuesday, July 20th, 2021
Time: 10:45 AM(EDT)
Number: BIOGII004
Abstract ID:758
Candidate for Awards:None

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