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Abstract Detail

Chromosome and Karyotype Evolution in Plants

Mandakova, Terezie [1], Windham, Michael [2], Mitchell-Olds, Thomas [2], Carman, John [3], Lysak, Martin [1].

Chromosomal evolution in the cruciferous tribe Boechereae.

The mustard family (Brassicaceae) comprises several dozen monophyletic clades usually ranked as tribes. The tribe Boechereae plays a prominent role in plant research due to the incidence of apomixis and its close relationship to Arabidopsis. The tribe, largely confined to western North America, harbors nine genera and c. 130 species, with >90% of species belonging to the genus Boechera. Hundreds of apomictic diploid and triploid Boechera hybrids have spurred interest in this genus, but the remaining Boechereae genomes remain virtually unstudied. Here our aim was to investigate the comparative genome structure of six genera (Borodinia, Cusickiella, Phoenicaulis, Polyctenium, Nevada, and Sandbergia) and several Boechera species by comparative chromosome painting. All analyzed taxa shared the same seven-chromosome genome structure. Comparisons with the sister tribe Halimolobeae (n = 8) showed that the ancestral Boechereae genome (n = 7) was derived from an older n = 8 genome by descending dysploidy followed by the divergence of extant Boechereae taxa. As the tribal divergence post-dated the origin of four tribe-specific chromosomes, it is proposed that these chromosomal rearrangements were a key evolutionary innovation underlaying the origin and diversification of the Boechereae in North America. Although most Boechereae genera exhibit genomic conservatism, intra-tribal cladogenesis has occasionally been accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements (particularly inversions).
This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (project no. 21-06839S).

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1 - CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
2 - Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
3 - Plants, Soils, and Climate Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA

chromosome rearrangements
descending dysploidy
karyotype evolution
North America

Presentation Type: Colloquium Presentations
Session: C11, Chromosome and Karyotype Evolution in Plants
Location: /
Date: Friday, July 23rd, 2021
Time: 10:15 AM(EDT)
Number: C11002
Abstract ID:267
Candidate for Awards:None

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