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Pejhanmehr, Mersedeh [1], Yorkston, Mitsuko [2], Morden, Clifford [3].

Phylogenetic analysis of Sida (Malvaceae) and association with other Malveae genera.

Malveae has the greatest generic and species diversity of the three tribes of subfamily Malvoideae (Malvaceae) with approximately 70 genera and 1040 species. Within Malveae, Sida is one of the largest genera with over 100 species of mostly herbs and small shrubs with world-wide distribution. The generic circumscription of Sida is problematic. Previous genetic analysis with a limited representation of species and genera and one gene region indicated that Sida is polyphyletic with a core group of species forming a distinct clade, but many species more closely associated with other genera and clades. The purpose of this study was to thoroughly examine relationships of species within Sida and better understand its relations among other genera of the tribe Malveae.
To do this research, leaf samples were obtained from species of Sida and other Malveae genera. Total genomic DNA was extracted, one noncoding nuclear DNA region (ITS), also one noncoding (psbA-trnH) and three coding (rpl16, ndhF, matK/trnK) chloroplast DNA regions amplified, database obtained. Sequences were compared using Bayesian and Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses.
Phylogenetic analysis expanded the monophyletic Sida clade, but also placed many Sida species outside this clade indicating their polyphyletic relationships of belonging to genera other than Sida and requiring taxonomic revision. Previous study was consisting of 32 Sida species. While our study contained 76 Sida species and covered at least two species of each 11 Sida sections. Fifty-two species placed inside the monophyletic Sida clade and all had base chromosome number of x=7, including the type species S. rhombifolia. Moreover, Dendrosida species were also placed inside the Sida clade and Fryxellia pygmaea as a sister to the Sida clade. However, 24 species of Sida were placed out of this clade and were present in four groups. The first group was sister to the Sida clade and included section Nelavagae (x=8). The second group was section Oligandrae (x=8) that was sister with the Allowissadula clade. The third group was section Malachroideae (x=8) that positioned as a sister to a clade including Meximalva, Sidastrum and Australian Sida species. And fourth group including Sida hermaphrodita (section Pseudo-Napaeae, x=7), S. hookeriana and S. ternate (section Hookeriana, x=7) that located as a sister to a clade containing Plagianthus alliance.
This study will assist with making clear generic delimitations and biogeography of Sida. This will also shed light on the biogeography and phylogeny of Malveae and consequently Malvaceae evolution.

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1 - University Of Hawaii At Manoa, Botany, St. John Plant Science Laboratory – 101, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI, 96822, United States
2 - University of Hawaii at Manoa, Botany, 3190 Maile way, Room 101 , Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA
3 - University Of Hawaii, School Of Life Sciences, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI, 96822, United States


Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: COOLI, ASPT Cooley Award Talks I
Location: Virtual/Virtual
Date: Wednesday, July 21st, 2021
Time: 10:15 AM(EDT)
Number: COOLI002
Abstract ID:263
Candidate for Awards:George R. Cooley Award

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